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Month: December 2009

NTFS-3G on CentOS 5

Lately I’ve seen some customers struggle with their external USB drives formatted in NTFS on CentOS servers. Because it’s such a common problem I decided to make a very quick howto on the subject.

The Fuse packages found in the default CentOS repository haven’t been compiled with NTFS-3G support. Even though there are fuse-ntfs3g packages available! To get around this I prefer to enable the RPM Forge repository. It’s very easy to do so.

On 32bit platforms:

# wget http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/i386/RPMS.dag/rpmforge-release-0.3.6-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm
# rpm -i rpmforge*i386.rpm

On 64bit platforms:

# wget http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/x86_64/RPMS.dag/rpmforge-release-0.3.6-1.el5.rf.x86_64.rpm
# rpm -i rpmforge*x86_64.rpm

Moving on:

# rpm --import http://dag.wieers.com/rpm/packages/RPM-GPG-KEY.dag.txt
# yum update

Installing RPM Forge’s Fuse packages and dependencies:

# yum install -y kernel-devel kernel-headers
# yum install -y --enablerepo=rpmforge dkms dkms-fuse fuse
# yum install -y --enablerepo=rpmforge fuse-ntfs-3g-devel fuse-devel

For some strange reason, the Fuse module in the package isn’t compiled yet. Lucky for us the package maintainer has provided the source code for us:

# cd /usr/src/fuse-2.7.4-1.nodist.rf/
# ./configure
# make
# make install

And now the part most people seem to forget, insert the Fuse module into the kernel:

# insmod /lib/modules/2.6.18-164.9.1.el5/kernel/fs/fuse/fuse.ko

Mount the external disk:

# mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usb/
# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
...
/dev/sdc5             466G   79M  466G   1% /mnt/usb

That’s all there’s to it!

[root@srv01 src]# yum install -y –enablerepo=rpmforge dkms dkms-fuse fuse
Thats
[root@srv01 src]# yum install -y –enablerepo=rpmforge fuse-ntfs-3g-devel.i386 fuse-devel.i386

Apache mod_evasive DDoS prevention on a CentOS 5.x Plesk environment

A couple weeks ago I was asked to implement a DDoS prevention system for a customer who had been suffering some DDoS events.
Shouldn’t be too hard. The only catch was that the box was running a Plesk 9 LAMP stack.
I chose to go with mod_evasive, a GPL2 licensed module for Apache[1-2].
It can be downloaded at http://www.zdziarski.com/blog/?page_id=442 either using the CVS repository or as a tarball.
I ended up using the latter. The current stable version at this point is 1.10.1.
This guide has been assembled using Centos 5.4 with a Plesk 9 LAMP stack. I haven’t tested it on anything else, but it should work just the same way it does in this guide.
===== Install =====
First things first. Let’s check out which versions of apxs are installed:
<code>
# updatedb; locate apxs | grep bin
/usr/local/psa/admin/bin/apxs
</code>
This version is Parallell’s default version, wich comes with Plesk.
If this is the only version you have available you will need to install the generic httpd-devel package. Parallell’s version of apxs is a bit limited and won’t compile the module.
<code>
# yum install httpd-devel
</code>
Give it another go and you should end up with something like this:
<code>
# updatedb; locate apxs | grep bin
/usr/local/psa/admin/bin/apxs
/usr/sbin/apxs
</code>
Onto downloading and extracting the mod_evasive module:
<code>
# cd /usr/src
# wget http://www.zdziarski.com/projects/mod_evasive/mod_evasive_1.10.1.tar.gz
# tar xvzf mod_evasive_1.10.1.tar.gz
mod_evasive/
mod_evasive/.cvsignore
mod_evasive/LICENSE
mod_evasive/Makefile.tmpl
mod_evasive/README
mod_evasive/mod_evasive.c

A couple weeks ago I was asked to implement a DDoS prevention system in Apache for a customer who had obviously been suffering some gnarly DDoS events. Shouldn’t be too hard. The only catch was that the box was running a Plesk 9 LAMP stack.

I chose to go with mod_evasive, a GPL2 licensed module for Apache[1-2]. It can be downloaded at http://www.zdziarski.com/projects/mod_evasive/ either using the CVS repository or as a tarball. I ended up using the latter. The current stable version at this point is 1.10.1.

This guide has been assembled using Centos 5.4 with a Plesk 9 LAMP stack. I haven’t tested it on anything else, but it should work just the same way it does in this guide.

Install

First things first. Let’s check out which versions of apxs are installed:

# updatedb; locate apxs | grep bin
/usr/local/psa/admin/bin/apxs

This version is Parallell’s default version, wich comes with Plesk.

If this is the only version you have available you will need to install the generic httpd-devel package. Parallell’s version of apxs is a bit limited and won’t compile the module.

# yum install httpd-devel

Give it another go and you should end up with something like this:

# updatedb; locate apxs | grep bin
/usr/local/psa/admin/bin/apxs
/usr/sbin/apxs

Onto downloading and extracting the mod_evasive module:

# wget http://www.zdziarski.com/projects/mod_evasive/mod_evasive_1.10.1.tar.gz
# tar xvzf mod_evasive_1.10.1.tar.gz mod_evasive/
mod_evasive/.cvsignore
mod_evasive/LICENSE
mod_evasive/Makefile.tmpl
mod_evasive/README
mod_evasive/mod_evasive.c
mod_evasive/mod_evasive20.c
mod_evasive/mod_evasiveNSAPI.c
mod_evasive/test.pl
mod_evasive/CHANGELOG

Be sure to check out the CHANGELOG and README files!

Even though people tend to forget this step… those files are included for a reason.
Let’s move on to compiling and actually installing the module inside the Plesk chroot:

# /usr/sbin/apxs -cia /usr/src/mod_evasive/mod_evasive20.c
/usr/lib/apr-1/build/libtool --silent --mode=compile gcc -prefer-pic -O2 -g -pipe -Wall -Wp,-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -fexceptions \
-fstack-protector --param=ssp-buffer-size=4 -m32 -march=i386 -mtune=generic -fasynchronous-unwind-tables -fno-strict-aliasing \
-DLINUX=2 -D_REENTRANT -D_GNU_SOURCE -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE -pthread -I/usr/include/httpd  -I/usr/include/apr-1   -I/usr/include/apr-1 \
-c -o mod_evasive20.lo mod_evasive20.c && touch mod_evasive20.slo
mod_evasive20.c: In function 'access_checker':
mod_evasive20.c:212: warning: implicit declaration of function 'getpid'
mod_evasive20.c:212: warning: format '%ld' expects type 'long int', but argument 4 has type 'int'
mod_evasive20.c:229: warning: ignoring return value of 'system', declared with attribute warn_unused_result
mod_evasive20.c: In function 'destroy_hit_list':
mod_evasive20.c:301: warning: control reaches end of non-void function
mod_evasive20.c: In function 'create_hit_list':
mod_evasive20.c:118: warning: control reaches end of non-void function
/usr/lib/apr-1/build/libtool --silent --mode=link gcc -o mod_evasive20.la  -rpath /usr/lib/httpd/modules -module -avoid-version    mod_evasive20.lo
/usr/lib/httpd/build/instdso.sh SH_LIBTOOL='/usr/lib/apr-1/build/libtool' mod_evasive20.la /usr/lib/httpd/modules
/usr/lib/apr-1/build/libtool --mode=install cp mod_evasive20.la /usr/lib/httpd/modules/
cp .libs/mod_evasive20.so /usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_evasive20.so
cp .libs/mod_evasive20.lai /usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_evasive20.la
cp .libs/mod_evasive20.a /usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_evasive20.a
chmod 644 /usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_evasive20.a
ranlib /usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_evasive20.a
PATH="$PATH:/sbin" ldconfig -n /usr/lib/httpd/modules
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Libraries have been installed in:
/usr/lib/httpd/modules
If you ever happen to want to link against installed libraries
in a given directory, LIBDIR, you must either use libtool, and
specify the full pathname of the library, or use the `-LLIBDIR'
flag during linking and do at least one of the following:
- add LIBDIR to the `LD_LIBRARY_PATH' environment variable
during execution
- add LIBDIR to the `LD_RUN_PATH' environment variable
during linking
- use the `-Wl,--rpath -Wl,LIBDIR' linker flag
- have your system administrator add LIBDIR to `/etc/ld.so.conf'
See any operating system documentation about shared libraries for
more information, such as the ld(1) and ld.so(8) manual pages.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
chmod 755 /usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_evasive20.so
[activating module `evasive20' in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf]

Next up we need to restart apache to load the module:

# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
Starting httpd:                                            [  OK  ]

Verify

Verify if the module is in the apache config:

# grep -i evasive /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
LoadModule evasive20_module   /usr/lib/httpd/modules/mod_evasive20.so

Check wether the modtule is actually loaded:

# php -r 'phpinfo();' | grep -i evasive
^ Loaded Modules | core prefork http_core mod_so mod_auth_basic
mod_auth_digest mod_authn_file mod_authn_alias mod_authn_anon
mod_authn_dbm mod_authn_default mod_authz_host mod_authz_user
mod_authz_owner mod_authz_groupfile mod_authz_dbm mod_authz_default
util_ldap mod_authnz_ldap mod_include mod_log_config mod_logio
mod_env mod_ext_filter mod_mime_magic mod_expires mod_deflate
mod_headers mod_usertrack mod_setenvif mod_mime mod_dav mod_status
mod_autoindex mod_info mod_dav_fs mod_vhost_alias mod_negotiation
mod_dir mod_actions mod_speling mod_userdir mod_alias mod_rewrite
mod_proxy mod_proxy_balancer mod_proxy_ftp mod_proxy_http mod_proxy_connect
mod_cache mod_suexec mod_disk_cache mod_file_cache mod_mem_cache mod_cgi
mod_version **mod_evasive20** mod_perl mod_php5 mod_proxy_ajp mod_python mod_ssl |

Seems it’s loaded just fine.

Configure

Now let’s get started with the configuration. I couldn’t find any default config, but this one seems to run just fine. Even on a heavily visited shared hosting server.

Add the following rules at the end of /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:

<IfModule mod_evasive20.c>
DOSHashTableSize 3097
DOSPageCount 6
DOSSiteCount 100
DOSPageInterval 2
DOSSiteInterval 2
DOSBlockingPeriod 600
</IfModule>

And let’s kick apache one last time:

# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
Stopping httpd:                                            [  OK  ]
Starting httpd:                                            [  OK  ]

NOTE

Be sure to keep an eye on your webstats!

There might be a sudden drop in the amount of unique visitors. This might be a result of an attack that’s been evaded. However if you’ve used different configuration parameters you might have restricted it too much and you’ll end up restricting valid customers too. I haven’t recieved any negative comments about this setup (yet?)

Use with caution!